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I \.M :Soi j30-n9/o 




SOLAR/ 1030- 79/01 



Monthly 

Performance 

Report 



CHESTER WEST 
JANUARY 1979 



^kU.S. Department of Energy 




National Solar Heating and 
Cooling Demonstration Program 

National Solar Data Program 



.NOTICE. 



This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States 
Government. Neither the United States nor the United States Department of Energy, nor 
any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, 
make any warranty, express or implied, or assume any legal liability or responsibility for 
the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product or 
process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. 



MONTHLY PERFORMANCE REPORT 
CHESTER WEST 
JANUARY 1979 



I . SYSTEM DESCRIPTION 

The Chester West site is a single- family residence in Huntsville, Alabama. 
Solar energy is used for space heating the home and preheating domestic hot 
water (DHW). The solar energy system has an array of flat-plate collectors 
with a gross area of 225 square feet. The array faces south at an angle of 
49 degrees to the horizontal. A qlycerol-water solution is used as the medium 
for delivering solar energy from the collector arra^ to storage, and water is 
the medium for delivering solar energy from storage to the space heating and 
hot water loads. Solar energy is stored aboveground in a 500-gallon water 
storage tank. Auxiliary space heating is provided by an air-to-air heat pump 
and electrical heating elements which are designed to function in parallel 
with the solar energy space heating loop. Auxiliary hot water heating is 
provided in series with the solar energy hot water heating loop through the 
use of electrical heating elements in an 80-gallon DHW tank. The system, 
shown schematically in Figure 1, has three modes of solar operation. 

Mode 1 - Collector-to-Stora ge: This mode activates when the control system 
senses a sufficient temperature difference between the collector and storage 
and remains active until the temperature difference drops below the accepted 
minimum. The collected energy is transferred to storage through a ring-type, 
liquid- to-liquid heat exchanger located in the storage tank. Pump PI is 
operating. 

Mode 2 - Storage- to-Space Heating : This mode activates when there is a demand 
for space heating. Solar energy is circulated to the conditioned space by 
solar heated water from storage through a liquid-to-air heat exchanger located 
in the air-distribution duct. Pump P3 is operating. 

Mode 3 - Storage- to-DHW Tank : This mode activates when the control system 
senses a sufficient temperature difference between storage and the DHW tank, 
and remains active as long as a sufficient difference exists. Water circu- 
lates from the top of storage through a liquid- to-liquid heat exchanger 
located in the bottom of the DHW tank. Pump P2 is operating. 

II. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION 



INTRODUCTION 

The site was occupied in January and the solar energy system operated contin- 
uously during the month. Solar energy satisfied 6 percent of the space heating 
requirements. In supporting the space heating requirements, the solar energy 
system provided electrical energy savings of 0.41 million Btu. The solar 
energy system also supported the DHW subsystem during the month. However, a 






g§§§ 




problem with the sensor measuring the flow of solar heated water from storage 
to the DHW subsystem produced invalid data. This problem invalidated many 
performance factors of the DHW and storage subsystems. 

WEATHER CONDITIONS 

During the month, total incident solar energy on the collector array was 5.1 
million Btu for a daily average of 728 Btu per square foot. This was below 
the estimated average daily solar radiation for this geographical area during 
January of 1002 Btu per square foot for a south-facing plane with a tilt of 49 
degrees to the horizontal. The average ambient temperature during January was 
34°F as compared with the long-term average for January of 41 °F. The number 
of heating degree-days for the month (based on a 65°F reference) was 973, as 
compared with the long-term average of 747. 

THERMAL PERFORMANCE 

Collector - The total incident solar radiation on the collector array for the 
month of January was 5.1 million Btu. During the period the collector loop 
was operating, the total insolation amounted to 4.0 million Btu. The total 
collected solar energy for the month of January was 2.0 million Btu, resulting 
in a collector array efficiency of 39 percent, based on total incident insola- 
tion. Solar energy delivered from the collector array to storage was 1.8 
million Btu. Energy loss during transfer from the collector array to storage 
was 0.2 million Btu. This loss represented 10 percent of the energy collected. 
Operating energy required by the collector loop was 0.16 million Btu. 

Storage - Solar energy delivered to storage was 1.8 million Btu. There were 
0.77 million Btu delivered from storage to the space heating subsystem. The 
average storage temperature for the month was 84°F. 

DHW Load - The DHW subsystem consumed an unknown amount of solar energy and 
0.56 million Btu of auxiliary electrical energy to satisfy a hot water load of 
0.39 million Btu. The DHW subsystem consumed a total of 0.12 million Btu of 
operating energy. A daily average of 17 gallons of DHW was consumed at an 
average temperature of 140°F delivered from the tank. 

Space Heating Load - Six percent of the 13.4 million Btu space heating load 
was satisfied by 0.77 million Btu of solar energy. An auxiliary electrical 
heat pump and resistance heater used 11.5 million Btu of electrical energy to 
satisfy the remaining 12.6 million Btu space heating load. This auxiliary 
requirement indicated a heat pump operating below its optimum performance 
level with most of the auxiliary support coming from the resistance heater. 
The space heating subsystem consumed a total of 0.80 million Btu of operating 
energy, resulting in an electrical energy savings of 0.41 million Btu. 

OBSERVATIONS 

Problems existed with liquid flow sensors in both the DHW and space heating 
loops. In the latter case a fall-back position to the air side of the space 



heating subsystem was possible. However, the problem did invalidate many DHW 
and storage performance factors. Additional anomalies in the DHW subsystem 
loop should be noted. The DHW pump remained on too long and this resulted in 
some energy being removed from the DHW subsystem and returned to storage. The 
actual amount was unmeasured, but believed to be relatively small. Also, 
there was an unmeasured storage energy loss due to a slight water seepage from 
the storage tank. 

ENERGY SAVINGS 

The space heating subsytem contributed an electrical energy savings of 0.41 
million Btu. 

III. ACTION STATUS 

A new storage tank is to be installed. The operation of the flow sensors in 
the DHW and space heating loops are to be investigated during the next site 
visit by Boeing. The system designer is investigating pump operation in the 
DHW loop. 



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